Namibia has the world’s largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) of which 90% are found on commercial livestock and game farms. During the 1980s, farmers killed large numbers of cheetahs and the cheetah population declined from 6,000 to less than 3,000 animals. We surveyed farmers to understand specific reasons for the population decline. We found that the primary problem was a perceived conflict with livestock farming. Game farmers reported more cheetah problems and removed higher numbers than livestock farmers. Our results suggest that new methods of livestock and wildlife management urgently need to be integrated with land management.