The rapid decline of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) throughout their range and long-term studies of captive breeding has increased conservation action for this species including the study of chronic diseases. Gastritis is one of the captive diseases that leads to high mortality presented with symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. The disease presents different histological lesions in the gastrointestinal tract that are characterized by inconstant and different clinical appearance in captive and free-range cheetahs. The aim of this review is to summarize the causes of chronic gastritis in the cheetah. Factors including diet, living conditions, infections with gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs), the lack of genetic polymorphism and the cheetah’s specific-immunocompetence are analyzed. All studies on gastroenteric cheetah pathologies, conducted between 1991 (to the best of our knowledge, the first report on online databases) and 2021, are included in this review, highlighting the possible correlation between stress-related captive conditions and chronic gastric pathology.